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9. Learning Outcomes

  • Issued: December 9, 2014
  • Content last reviewed: December 2014

The training program must meet the following learning outcomes:

Employers will need to supplement any training program that meets the requirements of this training program standard with additional information, instruction and training in workplace-specific policies and procedures and workplace-specific equipment related to working at heights.

9.1 Working at Heights Basic Theory Module

9.1.1 Rights and Responsibilities

By the end of this session learners will be able to:

  1. Identify the roles and responsibilities of the employer, constructor (if applicable), supplier, supervisor and worker, with respect to working safely at heights;
  2. Describe three worker rights with regards to working at heights and how a worker would take steps to exercise them;
  3. Explain that all workers have a duty to report to their supervisor or employer any fall hazard or defect in fall prevention/protection equipment of which they are aware and which may endanger themselves or another worker;
  4. Explain that an employer is prohibited from threatening to fire or dismiss workers for exercising their health and safety rights with respect to working safely at heights, or for asking their employer or supervisor to do what the Occupational Health and Safety Act requires;
  5. Explain that the Ministry of Labour enforces the Occupational Health and Safety Act and its regulations, and that Ministry inspectors may make orders, requirements and may initiate prosecutions, where appropriate, for non-compliance with requirements for working safely at heights; and
  6. Explain the types of help and resources available through the Ministry of Labour’s website www.ontario.ca/labour and the purpose of the Ministry of Labour’s 1-877-202-0008 telephone line.

9.1.2 Identification of the Hazards of Working at Heights

By the end of this session learners will be able to:

  1. Recognize hazards of working at heights;
  2. Recognize other hazards where workers are exposed to the hazard of falling from heights (i.e. into water, machinery, electrical equipment, hazardous substances or objects);
  3. List typical accidents and injuries related to working at heights in the workplace;
  4. Identify the frequency, severity and consequences of injuries and fatalities due to falls from heights (morale, family, society, reputation); and
  5. Explain the role of safe work plans and procedures in identifying hazards of falling from heights.

9.1.3 Eliminating or Controlling the Hazards of Working at Heights

By the end of this session learners will be able to:

  1. Explain the hierarchy of controls (such as elimination, isolation, engineering, substitution, administrative or PPE), related to working at heights;
  2. Utilizing realistic workplace scenarios (for barriers, access equipment, positioning equipment and Personal Protective Equipment), use the hierarchy of controls to choose the preferred method of working safely at heights; and
  3. Explain the limitations of personal protective equipment.

9.1.4 Warning Methods and Physical Barriers

By the end of this session learners will be able to:

  1. Describe the types of warning methods (signs and bump lines) and physical barriers (fencing, guard rails, protective coverings) and their appropriate use;
  2. Identify the characteristics and appropriate uses of permanent and temporary guard rails; and
  3. Explain which precautions are necessary when relocating or removing guardrails.

9.1.5 Ladders and Similar Equipment

By the end of this session learners will be able to:

  1. Identify a minimum of three types of portable ladders and similar equipment and their limitations;
  2. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of ladders and similar equipment for working at heights;
  3. Identify that there are different regulatory requirements for ladders in different sectors and that these requirements may place restrictions on the type of work which may be performed for working at heights from a ladder;
  4. Identify and assess situations in which ladders could be used safely for working at heights, and when alternative means of access would be more appropriate;
  5. Explain how to properly inspect and care for ladders and similar equipment;
  6. Describe how to safely position and use ladders; and
  7. Explain that if you are asked to use a ladder or similar equipment at your workplace, you may need additional workplace specific information, instruction, or training by your employer.

9.1.6 Personal Fall Protection Equipment

By the end of this session learners will be able to:

  1. Explain when a travel restraint system, fall restricting system or fall arrest system would be required and the essential components of each; and
  2. Identify that more extensive training is essential to safely use a travel restraint system, fall restricting system or fall arrest system.

9.2 Working at Heights Practical Module

9.2.1 Barriers and Other Fixed Equipment

By the end of this session learners will be able to:

  1. Identify situations in which bump lines, barriers, guardrails and safety nets would be appropriate;
  2. Identify the regulatory requirements (if any) for bump lines, barriers, guardrails and safety nets;
  3. Identify the limitations of bump lines, barriers, guardrails and safety nets; and
  4. Identify the specific requirements for strength and design of temporary guard rails.

9.2.2 Personal Fall Protection Equipment

By the end of this session learners will be able to:

  1. Discuss the limitations and the appropriate application of travel restraint, fall restricting and fall arrest systems;
  2. Identify the fall protection regulatory requirements (where applicable) for travel restraint, fall restricting and fall arrest systems;
  3. Discuss the fundamental components of travel restraint, fall restricting and fall arrest systems;
  4. Determine the fall distance to prevent a worker from striking the ground or an object below;
  5. Discuss the force required to deploy a shock absorber;
  6. Define and explain the effects on the human body of ”bottoming out”, the pendulum effect, and suspension trauma;
  7. Describe the steps required for the proper set up, use, maintenance and storage of travel restraint and fall arrest equipment (harness, lanyard, lifeline, rope grab, snap and grab hooks, carabiners);
  8. Demonstrate an ability to inspect and identify deficiencies in industry-standard personal fall arrest equipment;
  9. Demonstrate how to appropriately "don" and "doff" (i.e. put on and take off) industry-standard personal fall arrest equipment, including harness and lanyard;
  10. Describe how to protect horizontal and vertical lifelines while in use;
  11. Describe the appropriate set-up and use of a rope grab for personal fall arrest systems and ladder use;
  12. Explain methods to maintain tie-off at all times to an anchor point when changing anchor points; and
  13. Describe possible situations where you may need additional workplace specific information, instruction or training by your employer if you are asked to use fall protection equipment in your workplace.

9.2.3 Anchor Points

By the end of this session learners will be able to:

  1. Explain what an anchor point is;
  2. Discuss the appropriate location and use of anchor points;
  3. Provide examples of appropriate and inappropriate anchor points;
  4. Identify the consequences of using inappropriate items as anchor points;
  5. Illustrate the differences between permanent anchors, temporary fixed supports, and existing structural features as anchor points;
  6. Discuss the importance of manufacturer’s recommendations when installing new anchor points and, where necessary, approval of anchor points by a professional engineer; and
  7. Explain the importance of asking for information before using new anchor points.

9.2.4 Work Access Equipment, and Platforms

By the end of this session learners will be able to:

  1. Using the hierarchy of controls, identify the different types of equipment that may be available to safely perform a variety of tasks at heights. This includes Powered Elevating Work Platforms (PEWPs), scaffolds, ladders, suspended access equipment, and boatswain’s chairs. For ladders, regulatory restrictions and criteria for safe use and positioning shall be identified;
  2. Provide examples of the types of personal fall protection equipment that is needed to safely work at heights on work access equipment and platforms; and
  3. Explain that if you are asked to use work access equipment, platforms, or similar equipment in your workplace, you may need additional workplace specific and/or equipment specific information, instruction or training.

9.2.5 Rescue Planning

By the end of this session learners will be able to:

  1. Explain the purpose of a working at heights fall rescue plan;
  2. Identify key components of a fall rescue plan;
  3. Discuss the roles and responsibilities of employers, supervisors and workers in regards to a fall rescue plan and emergency procedures; and
  4. Explain that each project where workers rely on fall protection equipment (such as PPE and safety nets) must have a site specific rescue plan and that information, instruction or training on the site specific rescue plan is necessary.

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